Cloud Computing: History, Advantages, Types of Cloud Services
Nowadays almost every business owner understands the great value of digital for business. And if your company has a website, you definitely heard about cloud computing. There are a lot of areas where cloud computing can help you, like development, testing, and building of applications; data analysis and storage, backup and recovering, delivering SaaS on demand, etc. Let’s understand the meaning of cloud computing and how it was invented.
Cloud Computing History
Initially the idea of what we call ‘cloud computing’ today was proposed in 1970 by J.C.R. Licklider – a well-known figure in computer science. These days he was responsible for creating the ARPANET (The Advanced Research Projects Agency Network). His idea was to connect every person on the globe to the network which could provide an access not only to the data but also to the programs. Another scientist, John McCarthy, suggested that computing power would be provided to users as a service. On this stage, the development of cloud technologies was suspended. And renewed only in the 90s when a number of factors, mentioned below, contributed to the development of cloud computing.
- The expansion of the internet bandwidth in the 90s did not allow to get a significant progress in the development of cloud technology, because the technology of that time was not ready for this. However, the fact of speeding up the internet jumpstarted the development of cloud computing.
- One of the most important events in this area was the emergence of Salesforce.com in 1999. It was the first company who provided an access to its application through the website. Becoming the first company offering software as a service (SaaS).
- The next step was the development of Amazon cloud web service in 2002. This service enabled you to store information and make calculations.
- In 2006 Amazon launched a service called Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2), as a web service that allowed its users to run their own applications. Amazon EC2 and Amazon S3 services became the first available cloud computing services.
- Another milestone in the development of cloud computing occurred after Google created the Google Apps platform for web applications in the business sector.
- A meaningful role in the development of cloud technologies was played by virtualization technologies, in particular, software allowing the creation of a virtual infrastructure.
- The development of hardware made this technology available for small businesses and individuals. As for the technical progress, the creation of multi-core processors and an increase in the capacity of information storage devices played a significant role in this.
Advantages of Cloud Computing
Cloud Computing is a delivery of computing resources on-demand, from applications to data centres, over the internet with the pay-for-use pricing model.
- Using of a cloud on a leasehold basis allows users to reduce the cost of purchasing expensive equipment, and focus on investing money in setting up the business processes of a company, which speed up the process of starting a business;
- Paying for the actual use of resources helps cloud users effectively distribute their money. This allows users (companies) to save on the purchase of software licenses because there is no need to purchase licensed software, its settings and updates, you just paying for actual use.
- Cost reduction of virtual infrastructure maintenance caused by the development of virtualization technologies, thereby requiring less staff to maintain the entire IT infrastructure of the company;
- Flexibility and unlimited computing resources (RAM, CPU, disks). Using virtualization systems makes scaling and administration of the clouds a fairly easy task because the cloud can independently provide you with the resources you need, and you pay only for the actual use.
- The reliability of clouds, especially located in specially equipped data centres, is very high because such data centres have backup power sources, security, professional workers, regular data backup, the high bandwidth of the internet channel, high resistance to DDOS attacks.
- Security – cloud services have a sufficiently high security.
Types of Cloud Services
A public cloud is an IT infrastructure used simultaneously by many companies and services. Cloud data users do not have the ability to manage and maintain this cloud, all responsibility for these issues is assigned to the owner of the cloud. Any company and individual user can become a subscriber of the offered services. They offer an easy and affordable way to deploy websites or business systems with scalability. Examples: online services Amazon EC2 and Simple Storage Service (S3), Google Apps / Docs, Salesforce.com, Microsoft Office 365.
A private cloud is a secure IT infrastructure that is monitored and operated for the benefit of a single company. This company can manage a private cloud on its own or outsource this task to an external contractor. The infrastructure can be located either in the customer’s premises, or with an external operator, or partly with the customer and partly with the operator.
Hybrid cloud is an IT infrastructure that uses the best features of a public and private cloud when solving an assigned task. This type of clouds is often used when a company has seasonal periods of activity, in other words, as soon as the internal IT infrastructure fails to cope with current tasks, some of the capacity is transferred to the public cloud (for instance, large amounts of statistical information that do not represent value for the company in unprocessed form). As well as to provide users with access to company resources (to the private cloud) through a public cloud.
Types of Services Provided by Cloud Systems
I have already talked about IaaS and PaaS in detail in the previous article. Here I would like to point out the level of automation and control.
- Infrastructure as a service – virtual machines. Minimum automation, but maximum control.
- Platform as a service – medium or high degree of automation. The average degree of control.
- Software as a service – applications in the cloud. Maximum automation. Minimal management capabilities.
- Workplace as a Service – turnkey workplace.
- Data as a Service – data on purchases, user behavior, etc.
- Security as a Service – turnkey security check.
Hidora and Cloud Computing
Hidora is a Swiss cloud hosting provider offering cloud computing services (IaaS, PaaS and marketplace with more than 60 pre-configured popular applications) to e-commerce shops, agencies, blockchain companies and others.